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Employment trends
Country of birth

Proportions of employees from various countries and regions, 1971–2011

Next update December 2017

Selected audiovisual industries and all industries
Film and video production and post-production services
Film and video distribution
Film exhibition
Television broadcasting
Video hire

Selected audiovisual industries and all industries, 1996–2011

According to the Census of Population and Housing conducted in August 2011, there were 45,846 people employed in the selected audiovisual industries1. Of these, 79 per cent identified Australia as their country of birth, 6 per cent were from the United Kingdom & Ireland and 4 per cent from Asia.

There has been little change in these proportions since 1996, other than a slight but consistent increase in the proportion of people of Asian origin. The proportion of people from the United Kingdom, Ireland and Europe employed in the selected audiovisual industries is now lower in 2011 than 16 years ago.

The proportion of people of Australian origin in the audiovisual industries was above that of the overall Australian workforce, which was 70 per cent.

  Africa Americas Asia Australia Middle East Oceania
(except Australia) 
United Kingdom
& Ireland
Other Europe
& former USSR
Unknown
Indigenous Others
Selected audiovisual industries1    
1996 1.0% 1.6% 2.5% 0.6% 77.8% 0.4% 3.2% 8.5% 3.5% 1.0%
2001 0.8% 1.3% 3.2% 0.7% 79.1% 0.6% 3.1% 6.7% 3.0% 1.6%
2006 1.0% 1.5% 3.8% 0.7% 79.4% 0.6% 2.8% 6.0% 2.6% 1.4%
2011 1.3% 1.8% 4.4% 1.0% 78.2% 0.6% 3.2% 6.4% 2.6% 0.6%
All industries2    
1996 1.1% 1.1% 4.9% 1.0% 73.5% 0.7% 2.9% 7.8% 6.1% 1.0%
2001 1.2% 1.1% 5.8% 1.2% 73.0% 0.8% 3.3% 6.9% 5.1% 1.6%
2006 1.3% 1.2% 7.1% 1.3% 71.7% 1.0% 3.4% 6.4% 4.4% 2.0%
2011 1.6% 1.0% 8.1% 2.5% 67.3% 1.1% 2.8% 5.4% 4.5% 5.6%

Source: Compiled by Screen Australia using unpublished data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Censuses of Population and Housing, 1996–2011; data on Indigenous Australians added by Screen Australia from unpublished ABS data.

Notes:
Adjustments have been made to figures by the ABS to avoid the release of confidential data. Figures may not total exactly due to rounding.
1. ‘Selected audiovisual industries’ includes film and video production and post-production services, film and video distribution, film exhibition, television broadcasting, video hire and not further defined audiovisual industries. Industry definitions used by the ABS have changed over time. See Industry and occupation definitions for classifications and definitions.
2. Includes all Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) industries.

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Film and video production and post-production services, 1971–2011

According to the Census of Population and Housing conducted in August 2011, there were 9,908 people employed in film and video production and post-production services1. Of these, 73 per cent identified Australia as their country of birth, with the next highest representation from United Kingdom & Ireland at 9 per cent.

Since 1971, the proportion of people of Australian origin within the industry has remained steady, while there has been a significant decrease in those from the United Kingdom & Ireland and an increase from Asia.

The proportion of people of Australian origin in film and video production and post-production services was above the overall Australian workforce, which was 70 per cent.

  Africa Americas Asia Australia Middle East Oceania
(except Australia) 
United Kingdom
& Ireland
Other Europe
& former USSR
Unknown
Indigenous Others
1971 0.9% 2.5% 1.2% 0.2% 71.8% 0.2% 2.7% 13.8% 6.9% -
1976 1.0% 1.6% 1.0% 0.1% 72.1% 0.2% 2.7% 14.8% 6.5% -
1981 1.0% 1.9% 1.3% <0.1% 72.9% 0.3% 4.3% 12.9% 5.2% 0.2%
1991 1.0% 1.9% 2.2% 0.5% 74.7% 0.3% 3.7% 11.2% 4.3% 0.2%
1996 1.4% 2.2% 3.1% 0.5% 72.8% 0.4% 4.0% 10.5% 4.1% 0.9%
2001 1.3% 2.2% 3.7% 0.7% 72.6% 0.7% 4.4% 9.3% 3.8% 1.3%
2006 1.3% 2.3% 3.8% 0.4% 73.9% 0.7% 3.6% 8.9% 3.6% 1.5%
Production 1.4% 2.2% 3.7% 0.4% 74.3% 0.6% 3.5% 9.1% 3.4% 1.5%
Post-production 0.7% 3.3% 5.1% 0.4% 71.2% 1.4% 4.3% 7.7% 4.6% 1.2%
2011 1.4% 3.1% 4.5% 0.8% 72.6% 0.6% 4.0% 8.9% 3.6% 0.6%
Production 1.4% 3.0% 3.8% 0.8% 73.3% 0.6% 4.0% 8.9% 3.5% 0.6%
Post-production 1.3% 3.6% 9.3% 0.5% 67.1% 0.7% 4.6% 8.5% 3.8% 0.7%

Source: Compiled by Screen Australia using unpublished data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Censuses of Population and Housing, 1971–2011; data on Indigenous Australians added by Screen Australia from unpublished ABS data.

Notes:
Adjustments have been made to figures by the ABS to avoid the release of confidential data. Figures may not total exactly due to rounding.
Breakout data on production and post-production was available for the first time in 2006.
1. Industry definitions used by the ABS have changed over time. See Industry and occupation definitions for classifications and definitions.

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Film and video distribution, 1971–2011

According to the Census of Population and Housing conducted in August 2006, there were 656 people employed in the film and video distribution1 industry. Of these, 68 per cent identified Australia as their country of birth, with the next highest representation from Asia and the United Kingdom & Ireland each with 10 per cent.

Since 1971, the proportion of people of Australian origin in the industry has decreased while the proportion from Asia increased significantly.

The proportion of people of Australian origin in the film and video distribution industry was below the overall Australian workforce, which was 70 per cent.

  Africa Americas Asia Australia Middle East Oceania
(except Australia) 
United Kingdom
& Ireland
Other Europe
& former USSR
Unknown
Indigenous Others
1971 0.4% 0.9% 1.9% <0.1% 79.2% <0.1% 2.4% 10.3% 5.1% -
1976 0.8% 2.0% 3.1% <0.1% 77.7% <0.1% 2.0% 9.6% 4.2% -
1981 1.3% 0.9% 2.0% <0.1% 77.5% 0.4% 2.4% 10.2% 4.8% <0.1%
1991 2.1% <0.1% 2.5% n.a. 80.5% <0.1% 2.7% 8.0% 3.7% 0.5%
1996 1.1% 1.5% 2.8% 0.5% 75.8% 0.6% 3.3% 9.1% 4.3% 1.2%
2001 0.8% 0.9% 4.5% 0.6% 76.1% 1.2% 2.6% 7.7% 4.3% 1.3%
2006 2.0% 0.9% 6.1% 0.7% 71.7% 1.5% 4.5% 8.0% 3.1% 1.5%
2011 1.2% 1.5% 9.8% 0.5% 67.2% 0.0% 7.3% 9.5% 2.6% 0.5%

Source: Compiled by Screen Australia using unpublished data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Censuses of Population and Housing, 1971–2011; data on Indigenous Australians added by Screen Australia from unpublished ABS data.

Notes:
Adjustments have been made to figures by the ABS to avoid the release of confidential data. Figures may not total exactly due to rounding.
1. Industry definitions used by the ABS have changed over time. See Industry and occupation definitions for classifications and definitions.

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Film exhibition, 1971–2011

According to the Census of Population and Housing conducted in August 2011, there were 9,871 employed in the film exhibition1 industry. Of these, 86 per cent identified Australia as their country of birth, with the next highest representation from Asia and the United Kingdom & Ireland each with 4 per cent.

Since 1971, proportions have remained relatively steady from all countries or regions, although there has been a small increase in the proportion of people of Australian and Asian origin and decrease in those from the United Kingdom, Ireland and Europe.

The proportion of people of Australian origin in the film exhibition industry was well above that in the overall Australian workforce, which was 70 per cent.

  Africa Americas Asia Australia Middle East Oceania
(except Australia) 
United Kingdom
& Ireland
Other Europe
& former USSR
Unknown
Indigenous Others
1971 0.3% 0.2% 0.6% 0.3% 82.2% 0.0% 1.3% 8.8% 6.3% -
1976 0.3% 0.6% 0.5% 0.2% 80.6% 0.1% 1.2% 9.8% 6.7% -
1981 0.6% 0.5% 1.5% 0.1% 80.5% 0.3% 1.5% 8.0% 6.8% 0.1%
1991 0.9% 0.8% 2.5% <0.1% 81.6% 0.2% 2.3% 7.2% 4.4% 0.1%
1996 0.7% 0.8% 2.3% 0.2% 84.6% 0.3% 2.1% 5.0% 2.8% 1.1%
2001 0.8% 1.1% 3.0% 0.7% 82.5% 0.4% 2.3% 4.8% 2.6% 1.9%
2006 0.8% 1.2% 3.3% 0.8% 84.4% 0.5% 2.0% 3.7% 1.9% 1.4%
2011 1.2% 1.3% 3.6% 1.0% 85.0% 0.3% 2.3% 3.5% 1.5% 0.5%

Source: Compiled by Screen Australia using unpublished data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Censuses of Population and Housing, 1971–2011; data on Indigenous Australians added by Screen Australia from unpublished ABS data.

Notes:
Adjustments have been made to figures by the ABS to avoid the release of confidential data. Figures may not total exactly due to rounding.
1. Industry definitions used by the ABS have changed over time. See Industry and occupation definitions for classifications and definitions.

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Television broadcasting, 1971–2011

According to the Census of Population and Housing conducted in August 2011, there were 17,298 people employed in the television broadcasting1 industry. Of these, 76 per cent identified Australia as their country of birth, with the next highest representation from the United Kingdom & Ireland with 8 per cent and Asia with 5 per cent. People from countries other than Australia had proportionally higher representation in subscription television compared to free-to-air.

Since 1971, proportions have remained relatively steady from all countries or regions, although there has been a consistent increase in people from Asia while the number of people from the United Kingdom & Ireland has decreased.

The proportion of people of Australian origin in the television broadcasting industry was above that of the overall Australian workforce, which was 70 per cent.

  Africa Americas Asia Australia Middle East Oceania
(except Australia) 
United Kingdom
& Ireland
Other Europe
& former USSR
Unknown
Indigenous Others
1971 0.5% 0.8% 1.5% <0.1% 76.9% <0.1% 1.8% 13.5% 5.0% -
1976 0.6% 0.7% 2.2% 0.1% 75.1% 0.2% 2.1% 14.2% 4.8% -
1981 0.8% 1.1% 2.0% 0.1% 75.6% 0.2% 2.6% 12.7% 4.9% 0.1%
1991 0.7% 1.2% 1.9% 0.6% 80.5% 0.2% 2.6% 9.0% 3.6% 0.2%
1996 0.9% 1.6% 2.1% 0.8% 78.3% 0.4% 3.1% 8.7% 3.3% 0.9%
2001 0.8% 1.5% 2.7% 0.6% 78.2% 0.6% 3.6% 7.7% 3.1% 1.3%
2006 1.0% 1.6% 4.1% 0.7% 76.6% 0.6% 3.4% 7.5% 3.0% 1.6%
Free-to-air 0.9% 1.5% 3.3% 0.8% 78.5% 0.5% 2.8% 7.4% 2.8% 1.5%
Subscription 1.4% 2.4% 7.3% 0.5% 68.1% 1.3% 5.8% 7.7% 3.7% 1.7%
2011 1.4% 1.7% 5.0% 0.8% 75.1% 0.7% 3.8% 7.9% 2.9% 0.7%
Free-to-air 1.3% 1.4% 4.2% 0.8% 77.4% 0.6% 3.1% 7.8% 2.7% 0.7%
Subscription 2.2% 2.7% 8.4% 0.9% 65.0% 1.2% 6.9% 8.1% 3.6% 0.9%

Source: Compiled by Screen Australia using unpublished data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Censuses of Population and Housing, 1971–2011; data on Indigenous Australians added by Screen Australia from unpublished ABS data.

Notes:
Adjustments have been made to figures by the ABS to avoid the release of confidential data. Figures may not total exactly due to rounding.
Breakout data for free-to-air and subscription television broadcasting was available for the first time in 2006.
1. Industry definitions used by the ABS have changed over time. See Industry and occupation definitions for classifications and definitions.

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Video hire, 1996–2011

According to the Census of Population and Housing conducted in August 2011, there were 7,551 people employed in the video hire1 industry. Of these, 87 per cent identified Australia as their country of birth, with the next highest representation from Asia and the United Kingdom & Ireland each with 3 per cent.

Since 1996, proportions have remained relatively steady from all countries or regions, although there has been an increase in those of an Australian origin and a decrease in those from the United Kingdom, Ireland and Europe.

The proportion of people of Australian origin in the video hire industry was well above that in the overall Australian workforce, which was 70 per cent.

  Africa Americas Asia Australia Middle East Oceania
(except Australia) 
United Kingdom
& Ireland
Other Europe
& former USSR
Unknown
Indigenous Others
1996 0.8% 0.7% 3.8% 0.6% 80.8% 0.7% 2.0% 5.7% 3.9% 1.1%
2001 0.5% 0.7% 3.3% 0.6% 83.4% 0.6% 1.9% 4.3% 2.5% 2.0%
2006 0.9% 0.9% 3.8% 0.9% 84.6% 0.6% 1.8% 3.2% 2.0% 1.2%
2011 1.0% 1.0% 3.4% 1.4% 85.2% 0.5% 1.8% 3.3% 1.8% 0.7%

Source: Compiled by Screen Australia using unpublished data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Censuses of Population and Housing, 1996–2011; data on Indigenous Australians added by Screen Australia from unpublished ABS data.

Notes:
Adjustments have been made to figures by the ABS to avoid the release of confidential data. Figures may not total exactly due to rounding.
Video hire as available as a separate industry classification for the first time in 1996.
1. Industry definitions used by the ABS have changed over time. See Industry and occupation definitions for classifications and definitions.

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